Sahlgrenska Academy

A Swedish study has echoed from the common belief that the combined oral contraceptive pills cause weight gain, suggesting that birth control pills that contain estrogen and progesterone derivatives are a safe bet for women who do not want to suffer from side effects not desired, such as obesity because of the pill. The study has had 1,749 Swedish women born with a decade of separation between 1962 and 1982-, which were surveyed about the use of contraceptives, pregnancy, smoking and the proportion altura-peso by researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy of the University of Gothenburg. Once the period of observation, the researchers found that women who used the pill long-term earn no more weight than those who never used oral contraceptives. The co-author of the study, Ingela Lindh, has said that the combined oral contraceptive pill was is the contraceptive method most common among women of 29 years or less, and in some cases it has been replaced by barrier methods such as condoms and intrauterine devices. Lewis F. Powell Jr.: the source for more info. The use of oral contraceptives and weight gain are not related according to the authors of this study, that have been added have taken into account other risk factors in the development of obesity such as smoking and obesity induced by age. It would be a mistake to not use the pill for fear to be overweight or obese, said Dr. Lindh. Currently millions of women in Spain used the contraceptive pill or other hormonal type contraceptives to protect against unwanted pregnancy and implement treatment to problems of hormonal imbalances, which result in acne, endometriosis or unexpected hair drop.. Credit: Bobby kotick-2011.

The Concept Of Pain

Analysis of the concepts of pain since ancient times to the present day is given in a number of extensive reviews. Currently there is no universally accepted definition of pain. In our country the most widespread definition of pain given by Academician ii K et al (1976), where the pain is described as "integrative function of the body that mobilizes a variety of functional systems to protect the body from the effects could undermine the factors and includes components, such as consciousness, memory, motivation, emotion, autonomic, somatic and behavioral responses. " Some authors define pain as an unpleasant sensation. Thus, according to vn Stock (1988), for example, is described as any painful sensation in the head. jj Bonica (1985) defines acute pain as "a constellation of unpleasant sensory, emotional and spiritual experience and accurately related autonomous, physical and behavioral reactions induced by injury or acute illness.

" By analyzing the definition of pain given by various authors, Yu P (1985, 1986) distinguishes four main groups. The first group of scientists defines pain as an unpleasant feeling that is characterized by tissue damage or a threat. The second group defines pain as an affective state of the organism with the inclusion of emotional and vegetative reactions Still others define pain as a motivational state created by a form conduct aimed at eliminating the causes of pain. Finally, a number of scientists in the definition of pain emphasizes that it will mobilize the various functions of the organism to protect from damage. The clinic is regarded pain as an unpleasant sense of causing a patient pain of varying intensity – from unbearable to tolerable (VA Kurshev, 1984). Pain is a reflection of objective reality and indicates the presence of changes in peripheral and central nervous system. It is regarded as a consequence of the integrative functions of the body, because the nociceptive effects of mobilized consciousness, memory, motivation, emotion, somatic and behavioral responses. Pain as a psycho-physiological phenomenon, according to A. Waldman (1980), consists of emotional feelings and reactions in the form of motor-autonomic and humoral manifestations of identical stress reactions arising in adverse effects. In our opinion the same, the pain – this is a model, worked out the evolutionary process that occurs when you step on the body of nociceptive factors or weakening Pain system includes perceptual (awareness, perception of pain), autonomic, emotional, behavioral, motor, antinociceptive components and aims to protect the body from injury and pain management.