Australian scientists from the Scientific and Industrial Research Centre (CSIKO) noted an unusual anniversary: three years ago they introduced the public know-how – heat-resistant plastic. When ignited material changes the molecular structure and is transformed into ceramics, preventing the further spread of fire. Savvy observers of Western news feeds for fun recorded this development in the IT-sphere. They offered to produce a refractory plastic casing laptops, which at that time gained a reputation for very "hot" laptop. After all, the 2006 peak of reports of explosions of laptop computers.
But seriously, the Australian technology is capable of fire protection computers, servers and other electronic devices. Creators are confident that their invention can be used on oil rigs, cargo ships, in airplanes, offices, residential buildings and will be true always. Eliot Horowitz might disagree with that approach. Properties of plastics speak for themselves, and easily explain its relevance, for example, in modern construction and interior design. Especially active are used polyvinyl chloride. This durable product, which not afraid of moisture and frost, and due to its high density it is resistant to mechanical damage.
Of course, pvc, like most of the materials exposed to fire, but many tests show good results. (Source: Michael Steinhardt). So, if the tree is lit at 210-270 C, then the plastic "hold" to 330-400 C. But even at higher temperatures, this polymer does not support the combustion process in the absence of direct contact with an ignition source. He just melts. In addition, the pvc combustion produces less heat than burning wood. As a consequence, reduces the probability of fire spread.
Introduction of advanced management techniques is an important task for construction companies at the present stage of their development, regardless of their size and scale of operations. New technologies allow the management real estate players to reduce costs, optimize time and reduce the risks associated with construction projects. Solving these problems helps the information contained in the books listed below Construction Management 1. The Book 'Managing investment and construction projects: an international approach' This book presents a set of practical solutions in the management of international projects on all phases of their implementation, including: concept development, modern organizational structures, pre-investment preparation, organization of management (including monitoring and change management), development of project documentation, dates, costs, resources, personnel, communications (including software), risks, safety, logistics, manufacturing operations, analysis and generalization of experience, English-Russian dictionary of technical terms, the constituent elements of success for any modern construction project. The authors describe the six key concepts of construction management: planning and control of timing, financial planning and management cost, quality and efficiency, health and safety, assessment and monitoring of the environment, information technology and communications. The book gives an approach to the development and application of systems management for each of these management functions. We also discuss the impact of management systems for organization and human resources. The book is intended for managers and managers of construction companies, teachers, graduate students and students of universities, as well as anyone interested in building management systems.
3. Book 'pricing and cost estimates in the construction of' The book outlines the basis of pricing, methods, and examples of budgeting in the Russian Federation. Clearly shows the elements of regulatory and procedural framework in estimating the cost of construction products. Explains the rules for determining the volume construction works. The foundations of the organization contractors bidding for construction. Are examples of budgeting from civil engineering and construction and repair to the repair and restoration work. The book is intended for a wide range of economists, engineers, managers, students, teachers, students refresher courses and retraining, as well as practitioners and entrepreneurs in investment and construction.
This prevents a strong circulation of air that makes floor heating is ideal for people suffering from allergies. The surface temperature of the floor is usually limited to thermostat to 26 – 28 C, for which the temperature of heating elements located under the material floor should be approximately 30 – 33 C. When setting up the regulatory system of floor heating you should keep in mind that when the outdoor temperature is above the design temperature, the surface temperature of the floor should be lower than the calculated value, otherwise the room temperature rises excessively. Electric floor heating is carried out using heating cables, nets, mats, or foil, depending on the design of floors and floors, it is necessary to consider before you start construction and repairs. Underfloor heating can be built into the floors of virtually any design. Underfloor heating systems have low operating costs: heating cables require no maintenance and have a lifespan of up to several tens of years. However, in case of damage to the heater cable, it poses no threat surrounding structures, and the fault is immediately apparent.
Damaged area can be easily detected and repaired. In concrete floors, under floor heating can be applied using accumulated heat. In this case, the heating can be switched on during the day when electricity costs the least (usually – in the night). However, such systems are much slower to respond to regulatory exposure. The control system must determine the amount of heat that must be accumulated, so that the room temperature does not rise too high during the period of release of heat. This especially true in spring and autumn, when the difference between day and night temperatures can be quite significant. In addition to use of management and operation mode on the amount of energy consumed by floor heating affects the energy efficiency that it is lower than that of panel heaters. The reason for this is the method used as built-in heating system during construction characterized by significant heat loss (approximately 2 – 4%) through the construction of floors, as well as additional heat loss due to the slow response to the signal controllers. However, operating costs of such a system is usually lower due to the use of preferential tariffs for electricity, and often heated floor keeps the room temperature at a lower level, without prejudice to comfort.
Management process today is complicated by the fact that the external situation is not stable. Therefore, in the first place there is the need to maintain awareness of how employees – about the state of affairs of the company, and business leaders – about changes in work, including contractors. According to Natalia , designer of the company J-style (Organization of office space), currently the company did with the accents. Convenience and comfort prefer office efficiency in work. “Today many people are changing the existing system and are seated employees in open space, assuming that the total space of a beneficial effect on communication in the team, the staff always open to debate – she explains. – Earlier on any issue had to call or go to another room, Now, simply turn on the chair.
” Thus, in addition to facilitating the flow of information in open space reduces the time to perform certain operations. “In this technique a lot of planning advantages, especially in terms of leaders – adds architect Olga Anufrieva. – Lack of boundaries allows the mobile office environment and change the layout of seats, depending on need. ” But in fairness, it should be noted that this method is widely used in foreign offices, are still heavily take root in Russian companies. Even when the staff offered to move from an old and close premises spacious bright office, many remain dissatisfied. “Of course, any change in humans cause fear and anxiety – continues Olga Anufrieva. – Probably, but this Russian man hard to get used to the constant Control “.