Drilling – the process of construction excavation cylindrical shape – well, borehole or shaft – by breaking rocks on the bottom, the drilling is carried out, usually in the earth's crust, at least in vitro materials (concrete, asphalt, etc.). Filed under: Viktor Mayer-Schönberger. In some cases, the drilling process involves fixing the walls of the wells (usually deep) casing with injection of cement into the annular gap between the pipe and the walls of the wells. Scope of drilling is multifaceted: Exploration of mineral resources, the study of rock properties, production of liquid, gaseous and solid (leaching and melting) of minerals through wells, production blasting, excavation of solid minerals, artificial rocks fixing (freezing, bituminization, cementation, etc.), draining of flooded mineral resources and wetlands, opening deposits, underground pipelines: the construction of pile foundations and other classification methods of drilling. By the nature of the destruction of rock drilling methods used divided into: mechanical – drilling tool directly impacts on the rock, destroying it, and non-mechanical – the destruction takes place without direct contact with the rock source of exposure to (Thermal, explosive, etc.). Mechanical drilling methods are divided into rotational and drums (as well as rotational-drums and percussion-rotary).
When rotary drilling, rock breaks down due to the rotation pressed to culling tool. Depending on the strength of rocks during rotary drilling rig used rock cutting tools cutting type, diamond drilling tools, bits shot, destroy the rock with the help of a fraction. Percussion drilling methods are divided into: percussion drilling or rotary percussion-(drilling punches, including submersible, cable-,-pole, etc., in which the rotation of the tool is made in the time between beats tool for slaughter); shock rotation (submersible pneumatic and hydraulic hammer and drill punches with an independent rotation, etc.), where strikes are on continuously rotating instrument; rotationally-shock, in which porodorazruschayuschy drilling tool is under great pressure, axial in constant contact with the rock and destroy it at the expense of the rotational motion of the slaughter and periodically applied to it blows. Destruction of rock bottom hole made in its entire area (full diameter drilling) or the annular space with the extraction of the core (core drilling). Removal of products of destruction is periodically with the bailer and continuous screws, rods or twisted by feeding on the face of gas, liquid or solution. Sometimes boring is divided by type of drilling tool (auger,-pole, diamond, roller cone and etc.), the type of drilling machine (perforation, pneumatic, turbine, etc.), according to the method of the wells (slope, shrub, etc.). Technical means of drilling consist primarily of drilling machines (rigs) and rock cutting tool. Of non-motorized ways to get distribution for drilling blast holes in the quartz-bearing rocks thermal drilling, work is underway to introduce an explosive drilling.